TOP 10 Routing Research Articles
TOP 10 ROUTING PAPERS: RECOMMENDED READING – NETWORK RESEARCH
Citation Count – 25
Using DSR for Routing Multimedia Traffic in MANETs
Ronald Beaubrun and Badji Molo
Department of Computer sciences and software engineering Laval University Québec (Québec), G1K 7P4, Canada
In mobile ad hoc networks (MANET’s), links are created and destroyed in an unpredictable way, which makes quite challenging the determination of routes between each pair of nodes. In this paper, we propose a formulation of the routing problem in multi-services MANET’s, as well as the implementation of an adaptation of the dynamic source routing (DSR) protocol. Simulation results reveal that DSR enables to provide end-to-end delay less than 0.11 s, as well as packet delivery ratio higher than 99% and normalized routing load less than 13%, for low mobility level and low traffic intensity.
DSR, MANET, Multimedia traffic, routing.
For More Details : http://airccse.org/journal/cnc/0110s09.pdf
Volume Link : http://www.airccse.org/journal/ijc2010.html
 A. Al-Maashri, M. Ould-Khaoua, Performance Analysis of MANET Routing Protocols in the Presence of Self-Similar Traffic, Proceedings of 31st IEEE Conference on Local Computer Networks, 14-16 Nov. 2006, pp. 801–807.
 R. Bai, M. Singhal, DOA: DSR over AODV Routing for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks, IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, Vol. 5, No. 10, pp. 1403– 1416, 2006.
 P. Calyam, M. Sridharan, W. Mandrawa, P. Schopis, Performance Measurement and Analysis of H.323 Traffic, In Proceedings of 5th International Workshop on Passive and Active Network Measurement (PAM 2004), France, Vol. 3 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Springer, pp. 137-146, April 19-20, 2004.
 A. Chaplot, A Simulation Study of Multi-Hop Wireless Network, IEEE International Conference on Personal Wireless Communications, pp. 86–89, December 15-17, 2002.
 M. U. Chowdhury, D. Perera, T. Pham, A Performance Comparison of three Wireless Multi-hop Ad-hoc Network Routing Protocols when Streaming MPEG-4 137 Traffic, In Proceedings of the 8th International Multitopic Conference, pp. 516- 521, December 24-26, 2004.
 T. D. Dyer, R. V. Boppana, On Routing Web and Multimedia Traffic in Mobile Ad hoc Networks, In Proceedings of the 36th Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS’03) -, Island of Hawaii, pages 10, January 6-8, 2003.
 X. Hong, K. Xu, M. Gerla, Scalable Routing Protocols for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks, IEEE Networks, Vol. 16, No. 4, pp. 11 – 21, 2002.
 T.-C. Huang, C.-C. Chan, Caching Strategies for Dynamic Source Routing in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks, IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference (WCNC) 2007, 11-15 March 2007, pp. 4239 – 4243.
 C.-C. Ooi, N. Fisal, Implementation of Geocast-enhanced AODV-bis Routing Protocol in MANET, IEEE Region 10 Conference TENCON, Vol. B, pp. 660- 663, Chiang Mai, Thailand, November 21-24, 2004.
 C. Taddia, A. Giovanardi, G. Mazzini, Energy Efficiency in OLSR Protocol, 3rd Annual IEEE Communications Society on Sensor and Ad Hoc Communications and Networks, pp. 792–796, Vol. 3, September 28-28, 2006.
 H. Tafazolli, A Survey of QoS Routing Solutions for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks, IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials, Vol. 9, No. 2, pp. 50–70, 2007.
 N. Taing, S. Thipchaksurat, R. Varakulsiripunth, H. Ishii, Performance Improvement of Dynamic Source Routing Protocol for Multimedia Services in 38 Mobile Ad Hoc Network, 1st International Symposium on Wireless Pervasive Computing, 2006, 16-18 Jan. 2006, 5 pp.
 Y. F. Wong and W. C. Wong, A Fuzzy-Decision-Based Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks, In Proceedings of the 10th IEEE International Conference on Networks, 2002, ICON 2002, Singapore, pp. 317-322, IEEE Computer Society, August 27-30, 2002 .
Citation Count – 17
AODVSEC: A Novel Approach to Secure Ad Hoc on-Demand Distance Vector (AODV) Routing Protocol from Insider Attacks in MANETs
Akshai Aggarwal, Savita Gandhi, Nirbhay Chaubey, Pathik Shah, Madhvi Sadhwani
Gujarat Technological University, Ahmedabad – 380 015, Gujarat, India
Department of Computer Science, Gujarat University, A’bad – 380 009, Gujarat, India
Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET) is a collection of mobile nodes that can communicate with each other using multihop wireless links without requiring any fixed based-station infrastructure and centralized management. Each node in the network acts as both a host and a router. In such scenario, designing of an efficient, reliable and secure routing protocol has been a major challenging issue over the last many years. Numerous chemes have been proposed for secure routing protocols and most of the research work has so far focused on providing security for routing using cryptography. In this paper, we propose a novel approach to secure Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV) routing protocol from the insider attacks launched through active forging of its Route Reply (RREP) control message. AODV routing protocol does not have any security provision that makes it less reliable in publicly open ad hoc network. To deal with the concerned security attacks, we have proposed AODV Security Extension (AODVSEC) which enhances the scope of AODV for the security provision. We have compared AODVSEC with AODV and Secure AODV (SAODV) in normal situation as well as in presence of the three concerned attacks viz. Resource Consumption (RC) attack, Route Disturb (RD) attack, Route Invasion (RI) attack and Blackhole (BH) attack. To evaluate the performances, we have considered Packet Delivery Fraction (PDF), Average End-to-End Delay (AED), Average Throughput (AT), Normalized Routing Load (NRL) and Average Jitter and Accumulated Average Processing Time.
AODV; SAODV; RREQ-ACK Cache; RC; RD; RI; BH ; NS-2.33; PDF; NRL; AED; AT; Jitter; Accumulated Average Processing Time
For More Details : http://airccse.org/journal/cnc/0712cnc12.pdf
Volume Link : http://www.airccse.org/journal/ijc2012.html
 S. Corson and J. Macker. “Mobile Ad Hoc Networking (MANET): Routing Protocol Performance Issues and Evaluation Consideration”, available at http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2501.txt
 RFC3561 (AODV). 2003; http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3561.txt
 N.Ch.sriman, Syed Mohammed Ansar, Sachin Kumar and Piyush Nagas “An Efficient and Secure Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad-hoc Networks”, IJCNC, Volume 2, No.3, May 2010.
 Perkins, C. E. and Bhagwat, P. 1994. Highly Dynamic destination-sequenced distance-vector routing (DSDV). For mobile computers.
 RFC3636. 2003. T. Clausen, Ed., P. Jacquet, Ed. Project Hipercom, INRIA.
 Aggarwa,l A., Gandhi, S. and Chaubey, N. 2011. Performance Analysis of AODV, DSDV and DSR in MANETs. Page No. 167-177 in International Journal of Distributed and Parallel Systems (IJDPS) ISSN: 0976 – 9757 [Online] ; 2229 – 3957 [Print] Vol.2, No..
 Gandhi, S., Chaubey, N., Tada, N. and Trivedi, S. 2012. Scenario-based Performance Comparison of Reactive, Proactive & Hybrid Protocols in MANET. In 2nd IEEE International Conference on Computer Communication and Informatics (ICCCI-2012), 10-12, January; http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/freeabs_all.jsp?arnumber=6158842
 Gandhi, S., Chaubey, N., Shah, P. and Sadhwani, M. 2012. Performance Evaluation of DSR,OLSR and ZRP Protocols in MANETs. In 2nd IEEE International Conference on Computer Communication and Informatics (ICCCI-2012), 10-12, January, 2012 being held at Sri Shakthi Institute of Engineering and Technology, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu, India; http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/freeabs_all.jsp?arnumber=6158841
 Ning, P., Sun, K. 2005. How to Misue AODV – A Case Study of Insider Attacks against MANET Routing. In Ad Hoc Networks, Volume 3, Issue 6, Pages 795–819; Elsevier; http://discovery.csc.ncsu.edu/pubs/TRMisuseAODV.pdf
 Zapata, M. and Asokan, N. 2002. Securing Ad-hoc Routing Protocols. In Proceedin. of ACM Workshop on Wireless Security (WiSe), Atlanta, GA.
 Sanzgiti, K., Dahill, B., Neil Levine, B., Shields, K., Elizabeth, M., Belding-Royer. 2002. A secure Routing Protocol for Ad hoc networks. In Proceedings of the 10th IEEE International Conference on Network Protocols. International Journal of Computer Networks & Communications (IJCNC) Vol.4, No.4, July 2012 209
 Yi, P. Naldurg, and R. Kravets. 2001. Security-Aware Ad hoc Routing for Wireless Networks. In proceedings 2nd ACM Symp. Mobile Ad hoc Networking and Computing (Mobihoc’01), Long Beach, CA, pp. 299-302.
 Payal N. Raj, Prashant B. Swadas(2009), ” DPRAODV: A DYANAMIC LEARNING SYSTEM AGAINST BLACKHOLE ATTACK IN AODV BASED MANET”, Proceedings of IJCSI InternationalJournal of Computer Science Issues, Vol. 2, 2009
 Amol A.Bhosle, Tushar P. Thosar, Snehal Mehatre,” Black-Hole and Wormhole Attack in RoutingProtocol AODV in MANET” Proceedings of IJCSEA, Vol.2,No.1, February 2012.
 NS-2 Network simulator; http://www.isi.edu/nsnam/ns/
 Network Simulator – 2 (NS-2); http://mohit.ueuo.com/NS-2.html
 Marc Greis’ Tutorial for the UCB/LBNL/VINT Network Simulator “ns”; http://www.isi.edu/nsnam/ns/tutorial/
Citation Count – 15
An Efficient ANT Based QoS Aware Intelligent Temporally Ordered Routing Algorithm for MANETs
Debajit Sensarma and Koushik Majumder
Department of Computer Science & Engineering, West Bengal University of Technology, Kolkata, India
A Mobile Ad hoc network (MANET) is a self configurable network connected by wireless links. This type of network is only suitable for temporary communication links as it is infrastructure-less and there is no centralised control. Providing QoS aware routing is a challenging task in this type of network due to dynamic topology and limited resources. The main purpose of QoS aware routing is to find a feasible path from source to destination which will satisfy two or more end to end QoS constrains. Therefore, the task of designing an efficient routing algorithm which will satisfy all the quality of service requirements and be robust and adaptive is considered as a highly challenging problem. In this work we have designed a new efficient and energy aware multipath routing algorithm based on ACO framework, inspired by the behaviours of biological ants. Basically by considering QoS constraints and artificial ants we have designed an intelligent version of classical Temporally Ordered Routing Algorithm (TORA) which will increase network lifetime and decrease packet loss and average end to end delay that makes this algorithm suitable for real time and multimedia applications.
MANET, Ant Colony Optimization, TORA, QoS Routing
For More Details : http://www.airccse.org/journal/cnc/5413cnc15.pdf
Volume Link : http://www.airccse.org/journal/ijc2013.html
 P., Deepalakshmi, S., Radhakrishnan, (2009), “Ant Colony Based QoS Routing Algorithm for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks”, International Journal of Recent Trends in Engineering, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 459-462.
 S. B., Wankhade, M. S., Ali, (2011), “Route Failure Management Technique for Ant Based Routing in MANET”, International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, Vol. 2, No. 9.
 R., Asokan, A. M., Natarajan, C., Venkatesh, (2008),“Ant Based Dynamic Source Routing Protocol to Support Multiple Quality of Service (QoS) Metrics in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks”,International Journal of Computer Science and Security, Vol. 2, No. 3.
 S., Kannan, T., Kalaikumaran, S., Karthik, V. P., Arunachalam, (2010), “Ant Colony Optimization for Routing in Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks”, International Journal of Soft Computing, Vol. 5, No. 6, pp. 223-228.
 P., Deepalakshmi, S., Radhakrishnan, (2011), “An ant colony-based multi objective quality of service routing for mobile ad hoc networks”, EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking.
 I., Kassabalidis, M. A., El-Sharkawi, R. J., Marks, P., Arabshahi, A. A., Gray, (2002), “Swarm Intelligence for Routing in Communication Networks”, IEEE Globecom.
 S. J., Mirabedini, M., Teshnehlab, M. H, Shenasa, A., Movaghar, A. M., Rahmani, (2008),“AFAR: Adaptive fuzzy ant based routing for communication networks”, Journal of Zhejiang University Science A, Vol. 9, No. 12, pp. 1666-1675.International Journal of Computer Networks & Communications (IJCNC) Vol.5, No.4, July 2013 203
 D., Sensarma, K., Majumder, (2012), “A Comparative Analysis of the Ant Based Systems for QoS Routing in MANET,” Recent Trends in Computer Networks and Distributed Systems Security,Communications in Computer and Information Science, Volume 335, pp 485-496.
 V., Park and M. S., Corson, (1997), “A Highly Adaptive Distributed Routing Algorithm for Mobile Wireless Networks”, Proc. IEEE INFOCOM ’97, Kobe, Japan.
 K.H., Lim, (Jul 2007), “Performance Enhancement of the Temporally-Ordered Routing Algorithm”, Honours thesis, The University of Western Australia.
 V., Thotakura, M., Ramkumar, (2010) ,“Collision Resistant Temporally Ordered Routing Algorithm”, International Journal of Information Sciences and Computer Engineering, Vol. 1,No. 1.
 R., Asokan, A.M., Natarajan, (2008), “An Approach for Reducing the End-to-end Delay and Increasing Network Lifetime in Mobile Adhoc Networks”, World Academy of Science,Engineering and Technology 48.
 V. D., Park, M. S., Corson, (1998 ),“A Performance Comparison of the Temporally-Ordered Routing Algorithm and Ideal Link-State Routing”, Proceedings of IEEE International Symposium On Systems and Communications. IEEE Computer.
 E., Weiss, G. R., Hiertz, B., Xu, (2005), “Performance analysis of temporally ordered routing algorithm based on IEEE 802.11a”, Vehicular Technology Conference, IEEE 61st.
 O., Liu, H., Wang, J., Kuang, Z., Wang, Z., Bi, (2006), “M-TORA: a TORA-Based Multi-Path Routing Algorithm for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks”, Global Telecommunications Conference,IEEE.
 P., Kuppusamy, K., Dr. Thirunavukkarasu, B ., Dr. Kalaavathi, (2011), “A study and comparison of OLSR, AODV and TORA routing protocols in ad hoc networks”, Electronics Computer Technology (ICECT).
 K.H., Lim, A., Datta, (2012), “An In-depth Analysis of the Effects of IMEP on TORA Protocol”,IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference: Mobile and Wireless Networks.
 R.K., Chakrawarti, Madhulika, (May 2012), “A QoS-based Measurement of DSR and TORA Reactive Routing Protocols in MANET”, International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Engineering & Technology, Volume 1, Issue 3.
Citation Count – 08
A Novel Solution to the Dynamic Routing and Wavelength Assignment Problem in Transparent Optical Networks
Urmila Bhanja, Sudipta Mahapatra and Rajarshi Roy
Research Scholar, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, India.
Associate Professor, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, India.
Assistant Professor, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, India.
We present an evolutionary programming algorithm for solving the dynamic routing and wavelength assignment (DRWA) problem in optical wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) networks under wavelength continuity constraint. We assume an ideal physical channel and therefore neglect the blocking of connection requests due to the physical impairments. The problem formulation includes suitable constraints that enable the algorithm to balance the load among the individuals and thus results in a lower blocking probability and lower mean execution time than the existing bio-inspired algorithms available in the literature for the DRWA problems. Three types of wavelength assignment techniques, such as First fit, Random, and Round Robin wavelength assignment techniques have been investigated here. The ability to guarantee both low blocking probability without any wavelength converters and small delay makes the improved algorithm very attractive for current optical switching networks.
Dynamic Routing, Evolutionary Programming Algorithm, Wavelength Assignment, Set Up Time, Fitness Function.
For More Details : http://airccse.org/journal/cnc/10109.pdf
Volume Link : http://www.airccse.org/journal/ijc2010.html
 Z.Zhang, and A.S.Acampora,(1995) “ A heuristic Wavelength Assignment Algorithm for multihop WDM networks with wavelength routing and wavelength reuse”, IEEE/ACM Trans.Networking, 3(3):281-288. Z.Zhang, and A.S.Acampora,(1995) “ A heuristic Wavelength Assignment Algorithm for multihop WDM networks with wavelength routing and wavelength reuse”, IEEE/ACM Trans.Networking, 3(3):281-288.
 R.M.Krishnaswamy and K.N. Sivarajan,(2001) “ Algorithms for Routing and Wavelength Assignment based on solutions of LP-relaxations”, IEEE communication letters,5(10): 435-437.
 R.Ramaswamy and K.N. Sivarajan,(1995) “ Routing and Wavelength Assignment in all optical Networks, IEEE/ACM Trans.Networking”, vol.3, no.5, 489-500.
 H. Zang, J. P. Jue, and B. Mukherjee,(2000 ) “ A Review of Routing and Wavelength Assignment Approaches for Wavelength-Routed Optical WDM Networks”, Optical Network Magazine, vol.1, no. 1,pp.47-60.
 A. Mokhtar, M. Azizoglu, (1998) “Adaptive wavelength routing in all optical networks”, IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, vol.6, no 2, PP.197-206.
 P. Bijja, (2003) “Wavelength assignment for all optical networks for mesh topologies”, A thesis submitted for the degree of M.S in electrical engineering, Louisiana state University.
 N. Banerjee, V. Mehta, and S. Pandey, (2004) “A genetic algorithm approach for solving the routing and wavelength assignment problem in WDM networks”, International Conference on Networks,(ICN’04), French Caribbean.
 S. Pandey, N.Banerjee, and V. Mehta,(2004) “ A new genetic algorithm approach for solving the dynamic routing and wavelength assignment problem in WDM networks”, 7th IEEE InternationalConference on High Speed Networks and Multimedia Communications (HSNMC’04), Toulouse, France
 D. Bisbal, I.D. Miguel, F. Gonzalez, J. Blas, J. C. Aguado, P. Fernandez, J. Duran, R. Duran, R. M. Lorenzo, E. J. Abril, M. Lopez, (2004) “ Dynamic Routing and Wavelength Assignment in Optical Networks by Means of Genetic Algorithms, Photonic Network Communications”, 7:1, pp.43-58, Kluwer Academic Publisher, Manufactured in The Netherlands ! 130
 V. T. Le, S. H. Ngo, X. Jiang, S. Horiguchi and M. Guo,(2004) “ A Genetic Algorithm for Dynamic Routing and Wavelength Assignment in WDM Networks”, LNCS 3358, pp. 893-902.
 V. T. Le, X. Jiang, S. H. Ngo and S. Horiguchi,(2005) “ Dynamic RWA Based on the Combination of Mobile Agents Technique and Genetic Algorithms in WDM Networks with Sparse Wavelength Conversion”, IEICE TRANS.INF.& SYST., VOL.E88-D, NO.9, pp. 2067-2078.
 A. Hassan, C. Phillips and J.Pitts, (2007) “Dynamic Routing and Wavelength Assignment using Hybrid Particle Swarm Optimization for WDM Networks”, PGNET.
 D.B.Fogel, (1995) “ Evolutionary Computation: toward a new philosophy of machine intelligence”, IEEE press Piscataway, NJ, USA.
 P.P.Sahu,(2006) “ A new shared protection scheme in optical network”, Current science, vol.91,no.9.
Citation Count – 08
A Novel Hierarchical ant Based QOS Aware Intelligent Routing Scheme for Manets
Debajit Sensarma and Koushik Majumder
Department of Computer Science & Engineering, West Bengal University of Technology, Kolkata, India
MANET is a collection of mobile devices with no centralized control and no pre-existing infrastructures. Due to the nodal mobility, supporting QoS during routing in this type of networks is a very challenging task. To tackle this type of overhead many routing algorithms with clustering approach have been proposed. Clustering is an effective method for resource management regarding network performance, routing protocol design, QoS etc. Most of the flat network architecture contains homogeneous capacity of nodes but in real time nodes are with heterogeneous capacity and transmission power. Hierarchical routing provides routing through this kind of heterogeneous nodes. Here, routes can be recorded hierarchically, across clusters to increase routing flexibility. Besides this, it increases scalability and robustness of routes. In this paper, a novel ant based QoS aware routing is proposed on a three level hierarchical cluster based topology in MANET which will be more scalable and efficient compared to flat architecture and will give better throughput.
MANET, Ant Colony Optimization, Clustering, Hierarchical Routing, QoS Routing.
For More Details :http://www.airccse.org/journal/cnc/5613cnc14.pdf
Volume Link :http://www.airccse.org/journal/ijc2013.html
 J., Macker, S., Corsen, IETF Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANET) Working Group Charter, http://www.ietf.org/html.charters/manet-charter.html.
 K. L., Pang (2006), The Comparison Study of Flat Routing and Hierarchical Routing in Ad Hoc Wireless Networks, ICON ’06. 14th IEEE International Conference,vol.1.
 D., Sensarma, & K., Majumder (2012), A Comparative Analysis of the Ant Based Systems for QoS Routing in MANET. In Recent Trends in Computer Networks and Distributed Systems Security (pp. 485-496). Springer Berlin Heidelberg.
 C.F., Huang, H.W., Lee, Y.C., Tseng (2004), A two-tier heterogeneous mobile ad hoc network architecture and its load-balance routing problem, Mob. Netw. Appl., vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 379–391.
 K. Y., Lee, J., B., Hwang, J. D., Ryoo (2005), End-to-end QoS routing in physically hierarchical wireless ad-hoc networks, Vehicular Technology Conference.
 H., Safa, H., Artail, M., Karam, H., Ollaic, and R., Abdallah (2007), HAODV: a New Routing Protocol to Support Interoperability in Heterogeneous MANET, Computer Systems and Applications, AICCSA ’07. IEEE/ACS International Conference on, pp. 893–900, May 2007.
 E. H. K., Wu, Y.Z., Huang (2004), Dynamic adaptive routing for a heterogeneous wireless network, Mob. Netw. Appl., vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 219–233.
 Y., Wang, H., Chen, X., Yang, D., Zhang (2007), Wachm: Weight based adaptive clustering for large scale heterogeneous manet, Communications and Information Technologies, ISCIT ’07. International Symposium on, pp. 936–941, Oct. 2007.
 K., Xu, M., Gerla (2002), A heterogeneous routing protocol based on a new stable clustering scheme, MILCOM 2002 Proceedings, vol. 2, pp.838–843 vol.2, Oct. 2002.
 M., Chatterjee, S.K., Das, D., Turgut (2001), WCA: A Weighted Clustering Algorithm for Mobile Ad hoc Networks, Journal of Cluster Computing (Special Issue on Mobile Ad hoc Networks).
 D., Sensarma, & K., Majumder (2013), An efficient ant based qos aware intelligent temporally ordered routing algorithm for manets. International Journal of Computer Networks & Communications (IJCNC), Vol. 5, No. 4, PP.189-203, Jul. 2013.
Citation Count – 07
Performance Investigation on Two-Classes of Manet Routing Protocols Across Various Mobility Models With QoS Constraints
Foez Ahmed and Muhammad Sajjadur Rahim
Dept. of Computer Networks & Communication Engineering, College of Computer Science, King Khalid University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Dept. of Information & Communication Engineering, Rajshahi University, Bangladesh
An ad-hoc network is an aggregation of wireless nodes forming a provisional network without any established infrastructure. To facilitate communication within such network, a routing protocol is used to discover and setup routes between nodes. The goal of the routing protocol is to have an efficient route establishment between a pair of nodes, so that messages can be delivered in a timely manner. This research investigates the effects of various mobility models on QoS metrics for two prominent proactive and reactive MANET routing protocols – Fisheye State Routing (FSR) protocol and Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector, from Uppsala University (AODVUU) respectively. Performance is measured by the varying number of traffic sources, number of nodes, host velocity, and data sending rate. These two protocols are simulated and compared under different mobility models namely Random Waypoint Mobility Model, Manhattan Grid Mobility Model and Reference Point Group Mobility Model. The performance metrics that are used to evaluate the performance of the routing protocols are Packet delivery ratio (PDR), Average latency of data packets, Network control overhead (NCO) and Throughput. Experimental results reveal that. on-demand routing protocol AODVUU is more sensitive to the speed of mobile nodes than the proactive routing protocol FSR. Due to its proactive nature, FSR can be used in bandwidth and resource critical environment. On the other hand scalability of AODVUU is limited for high-speed network. However, in case of higher data rates AODVUU always performs better in terms of PDR under all three mobility models.
MANET, Network Protocols, FSR, AODVUU, Mobility Models, QoS, CBR, NS2.
For More Details :http://airccse.org/journal/cnc/0311cnc13.pdf
Volume Link :http://www.airccse.org/journal/ijc2011.html
 Kunze, C., Grossmann, U., Storka, W., and Muller-Glaser, K., (2002), “Application of ubiquitous computing in personal health monitoring systems”, In DGBMT: Jahrestagung der Deutschen Gesellschaft Für Biomedizinische Technik, pp. 360–362, 2002.
 Buszko, D., Lee, W., H., and Helal, A., (2001), “Decentralized ad-hoc groupware api and framework for mobile collaboration”, In GROUP’01: Proceedings of the International ACM SIGGROUP Conference on Supporting Group Work, pp. 5–14. ACM Press, 2001.
 Ritter, H., Tian, M., Voigt, T., and Jochen H. Schiller, J., H., (2003), “A highly flexible testbed for studies of ad-hoc network behaviour”, In LCN, pp. 746– 752, 2003.
 Görgen, D., Frey, H., and Hutter, C., (2005), “Information dissemination based on the en-passant communication pattern”, KiVS: Fachtagung Kommunikation in Verteilten Systemen, 2005.
 Riera, S., M., Wellnitz, O., and Wolf, L., (2003), “A zone-based gaming architecture for ad-hoc networks”, In NETGAMES ’03: Proceedings of the 2nd workshop on Network and system support for games, pp. 72–76. ACM Press, 2003.
 Frey, H., Lehnert, J., K., and Sturm, P., (2002), “Ubibay: An auction system for mobile multihop ad-hoc networks”, In Workshop on Ad-hoc Communications and Collaboration in Ubiquitous Computing Environments, 2002.
 Belding-Royer, E., M., and Toh, C., K., (1999), “A review of current routing protocols for ad-hoc mobile wireless networks”, IEEE Personal Communications Magazine, pp. 46–55, 1999.
 Wikipedia, (2002), “Distance-vector routing protocol”, The free Encyclopedia,ElectronicDoc.Available:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Distancevector_routing_protocol, 18 Dec. 2002
 Laigar, P., (2002), “Analysis of Routing Algorithms for Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks”, Thesis,Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Computer Engineering, Gothenburg 2002
 Broch, J., Maltz, D., Johnson, D., Hu, Y., and Jetcheva, J., (1998), “Multi-Hop Wireless Adhoc Network Routing Protocols”, In Proceedings of the ACM/IEEE International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking (MOBICOM), pages 85–97, 1998.
 Johnson, D., and Maltz, D., (1996), “Dynamic Source Routing in Ad Hoc Wireless Networks”,In T. Imelinsky and H. Korth, editors, Mobile Computing, Kluwer Academic Publishers, pages 153–181, 1996.
 Camp, T., Boleng, J., and Davies, V., (2002), “A Survey of Mobility Models for Ad Hoc Network Research”, In Wireless Communication and Mobile Computing (WCMC), Vol. 2, No.5, pages 483-502, 2002
 Tan, D.S., Zhou, S., Ho, J., Mehta, J.S., Tanabe, H., (2002), “Design and Evaluation of an Individually Simulated Mobility Model in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks”, In Proc. Communication Networks and Distributed Systems Modelling and Simulation, San Antonio, TX, 2002
 Hong, X., Gelra, M., Pei, G., and Chiang, C., (1999), “A group mobility model for ad hoc wireless networks”, In Proceedings of the ACM International Workshop on Modelling and Simulation of Wireless and Mobile Systems (MSWiM), Aug. 1999.
 Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS), (1998), “Selection Procedures for the Choice of Radio Transmission Technologies,” of the UMTS (TS30.03 v3.2.0). TS 30.03 3GPP, April 1998.
 Broch, J., Maltz, D., A., Johnson, D., B., Hu, Y., C., and Jetcheva, J., (1998), “A Performance Comparison of Multi-Hop Wireless AD Hoc Network Routing Protocols”, In Proceedings MobiCom’98, Dallas, TX, Oct. 1998.
 Pei, G., Gerla, M., and Chen, T., W., (2000), “Fisheye State Routing: A Routing Scheme for Ad Hoc Wireless Networks”, In Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Communications, (ICC’00), Vol. 1, pp.70-74, New Orleans, June 2000.
 Royer, E., M., Lee, S., J., and Perkins, C., E., (2000), “The effects of MAC protocol on ad hoc network communication”, 2000.
 Raju, J., and Garcia-Luna-Aceves, J., J., (2000), “A comparison of on-demand and table driven routing for ad-hoc wireless networks,” In Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Communications, ICC’00, pp. 1702-1706 vol.3, New Orleans, Louisiana, June 2000.
 Lee, S., J., Hsu, J., Hayashida, R., Gerla, M., and Bagrodia, R., (2003), “Selecting a routing strategy for your ad hoc network”, In Computer Communications, vol. 26, pp. 723–733, 2003.
 Murthy, S., and Garcia-Luna-Aceves, J., J., (1996), “An efficient routing protocol for wireless networks,” In ACM Mobile Networks and Applications Journal, Special issue on Routing in Mobile Communication Networks, 1996.
 Ko, Y., and Vaidya, N., H., (1998), “Location aided routing (LAR) mobile ad hoc networks,” In MOBICOM, 1998.
 Basagni, S., Chlamtac, I., Syrotiuk, V., and Woodward, B., (1998), “A distance routing effect algorithm for mobility (DREAM),” In MOBICOM, pp. 76–84, 1998.
 Chen, B., and Chang, C., H., (2003), “Mobility Impact on Energy Conservation of Ad Hoc Routing Protocol”, White Papers, Published at Tufts University, May, 2003.
 Chen, J., Lee, Y., Z., Maniezzo, D., and Gerla, M., (2006), “Performance Comparison of AODV and OFLSR in Wireless Mesh Networks”, In Proceedings of the fifth annual Mediterranean Ad Hoc Network, pp. 271-278, diit, Jiwei Chen, University of California at Los Angeles, US, 2006.
 Sirivianos, M., and Leontaris, A., (2006), “Comparative Evaluation of Ad-Hoc Routing Protocols in Highly Dynamic Environments”, University of California, Irvine, ICS, Technical Report 07-04, 2006.
 Linares, A., B., Karlsson, J., (2006), “Evaluation of TCP Performance in hybrid Mobile Ad Hoc Networks”, Master’s Thesis, Department of Computer Science, Karlstad University, Karlstad,2006.
 Chen, T., W., and Gerla, M., (1998), “Global State Routing: A New Routing Scheme for Ad-hoc Wireless Networks”, In Proceedings of IEEE ICC’98, Atlanta, GA, pp. 171-175. Jun. 1998.
 Kleinrock, L., and Stevens, K., (1971), “Fisheye: A Lenslike Computer Display Transformation”, Technical report, UCLA, Computer Science Department, 1971.
 Gerla, M., Hong, X., and Pei, G., (2002), “Fisheye State Routing Protocol (FSR) for Ad Hoc Networks”, IETF Internet Draft (work in progress): draft-ieft- manet-fsr-03.txt, June 2002.
 Sun, A., C., (2000), “Desigh and Implementation of Fisheye Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks”, Master’s thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, May 2000.
 Perkins, C., Belding-Royer, E., Das, S., (2003), “Request for Comments: 3561”,http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3561.txt, Jul. 2003.
 Perkins, C., Belding-Royer, E., Das, S., (2002), “Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV) Routing”, Internet Draft, draft-ietf-manet-aodv-11.txt, work in progress, June 2002.
 NS2-URL, “The network simulator – NS2, http://www.isi.edu/nsnam/ns/”
 Tuch, B., (1993), “Development of WaveLAN, an ISM Band Wirelessw LAN”, AT&T Tech. J.,vol. 72, no 4, July/Aug. 1993, pp. 27-33)(Lucent Technologies,http://www.lucent.com)
 Wall, C., de and Gerharz, M., (2003), “BonnMotion: a mobility scenario generation and analysis tool”, Communication Systems group, Institute of Computer Science IV, University of Bonn,Germany. Website: http://web.informatik.uni-bonn.de/IV/Mitarbeiter/dewaal/BonnMotion/, 2003.
 Chen, B., and Chang, C., H., (2003), “Mobility Impact on Energy Conservation of Ad Hoc Routing Protocol”, White Papers, Published at Tufts University, May, 2003.
 Wang, L., Shu, Y., Dong, M., Zhang, L., and Yang, W., W., (2001), “Adaptive Multipath Source Routing in Ad Hoc Networks”, IEEE International Conference on Communications, ICC 2001.
 Jayakumar, G., and Ganapathy, G., (2007), “Performance Comparison of Mobile Ad-hoc Netwrok Routing Protocol ”, International Journal of Computer Science and Netwrok Security (IJCSNS), VOL. 7 No. 11, Nov. 2007.
Citation Count – 05
Quality of Service Provisioning in MANET Using a Cross-Layer Approach for Routing
Ruchita Goyal, Divyanshu and Manoj Mishra
Department of Electronics and Computer Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, India
Deployment of multimedia applications warrants provisioning of Quality of Service (QoS) in MANET. However, limited battery power, other resource constraints and mobility of nodes make QoS provisioning difficult to achieve in MANET. This difficulty can be overcome by using a cross-layer approach for routing. In  Patil et al., proposed a cross-layer routing protocol named Cost Based Power Aware Cross Layer – AODV (CPACL-AODV) which overcomes the limitation of battery power of nodes. Though many similar energy efficient and cross-layer routing protocols have been proposed for MANET, none of them handles QoS. A novel MANET routing protocol, Type of Service, Power and Bandwidth Aware AODV (TSPBA-AODV), which overcomes resource constraints and simultaneously provides QoS guarantees using a cross-layer approach, is proposed in this paper. In addition the effect of variation in nodes’ mobility on performance of TSPBA-AODV is compared with that of CPACL-AODV  for two different types of network traffic. As shown by the results of simulations performed, TSPBA-AODV performs better than CPACL-AODV for MANET in which nodes move with small speeds (speeds up to 40 Km/hr approx.). In addition the effect of variation in data sending rate of nodes on performance of the protocols is also studied. As shown by the results of simulations performed, TSPBA-AODV performs better than CPACL-AODV for all variations in data sending rate of nodes.
QoS provisioning, MANET, Ad-hoc network, Cross-layer, Routing protocol.
For More Details :http://airccse.org/journal/cnc/0511ijcnc06.pdf
Volume Link :http://www.airccse.org/journal/ijc2011.html
 Patil, R. & Damodaram, A. (2008) “Cost Based Power Aware Cross Layer Routing Protocol For Manet”, IJCSNS International Journal of Computer Science and Network Security, Vol. 8, No.12, pp388-393.
 Enneya, N., Koutbi, M.E. & Berqia, A. (2006) “Enhancing AODV Performance based on Statistical Mobility Quantification”, IEEE xplore, pp2455-2460.
 Alnajjar, F. & Chen, Y. (2009) “SNR/RP Aware Routing Algorithm: Cross-Layer Design for MANETS”, International Journal of Wireless & Mobile Networks (IJWMN), Vol. 1, No. 2, pp127-136.
 Veerayya, M., Sharma & V., Karandikar, A. (2008) “SQ-AODV: A Novel Energy-Aware Stability-based Routing Protocol for Enhanced QoS in Wireless Ad-hoc Networks”, IEEE, pp1-7.
 Pushpalatha, M., Venkataraman, R. & Ramarao, T. (2009) “Trust Based Energy Aware Reliable Reactive Protocol in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks”, World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technolog, 56.
 Al-Khwildi, A.N., Khan, S., Loo, K.K., Al-Raweshidy, H.S.(2007) “Adaptive Link-Weight Routing Protocol using Cross-Layer Communication for MANET”, WSEAS Transactions on Communications, Vol. 6, Issue. 11, pp833-839.
 Mbarushimana, C. & Shahrabi, A.(2008) “TSLA: A QoS-Aware On-Demand Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks”, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelber, LNCS 519, pp265-278
Citation Count – 03
Enhanced Location Based Routing Protocol for 6LoWPAN
M.Rehenasulthana, P.T.V Bhuvaneswari, N.Rama
Department of Computer Science, Mohamed Sathak College, Chennai.
Department of Electronic Science,MIT Anna University, Chennai
Department of Computer Science,Presidency College, Chennai
6LoWPAN (IPv6 over IEEE 802.15.4) standardized by IEEE 802.15.4 provides IP communication capability for nodes in WSN. An adaptation layer is introduced above the MAC layer to achieve header compression, fragmentation and reassembly of IP packets. The location-based information is used to simplify the routing policy. This paper proposes an efficient location-based routing protocol, considering link quality and distance between nodes as the routing metric. The proposed Enhanced Location-based routing protocol (ELBRP) was simulated in NS2 version 2.32 and performance were analysed in terms of packet delivery ratio, throughput and average end-to-end delay. From the results obtained, it is found that the proposed ELBRP outperforms existing LOAD protocol.
6LoWPAN, Routing, Location, LQI, distance
For More Details :http://airccse.org/journal/cnc/0512cnc07.pdf
Volume Link :http://www.airccse.org/journal/ijc2012.html
 Jonathan Hui, David Culler, Samitha Chakrabarthi (2009) “6LoWPAN: Incorporating IEEE 802.15.4 into the IP architecture”, IPSO, White paper 3.
 G. Montenegro, N. Kushalnagar, J. Hui, D.Culler, (2007) “Transmission of IPv6 Packets over IEEE 802.15.4 Networks”, IETF, RFC 4944.
 Xin Ma, Wei Luo (2008) “The Analysis of 6LoWPAN technology”, IEEE Computer Society, pp963-966
 Aminulhaque, Muhammad Ikram, Hyon-Soo Cha (2009) “Route-over vs Mesh-under Routing in 6LoWPAN”,ACM.
 Gee Keng Ee, CheeK yun Ng,, Nor Kamariah Noordin, Borhanudin Mohd Ali (2010) “A Review of 6LoWPAN Routing Protocols”, proceeding of Asia Pacific Advanced Network.
 K. Kim, Daniel park, Montenegro, N.Kushalnagar (2007) “6LoWPAN Ad hoc On-Demand Distance vector Routing (LOAD)”, IETF, draft-daniel-6lowpan-load-adhoc-routing-03.txt.
 Jian Ming Chang, Ting-Yun chi, Hsin-Yun Yang, Han Chieh Chao (2010) “The 6LoWPAN Adhoc On-demand Distance Vector Routing with Multi-Path scheme (MLOAD)”, IET.
 K.Kim, S.Yoo, J. Lee, G. Mulligan (2007) “Hierarchical Routing over 6LoWPAN (HiLow)”, IETF,draft-daniel-6lowpan-hilow-hierarchical-routing-01.txt.
 E. Kim, D.Kaspar, C. Gomez, Bormann “6LoWPAN Routing Requirements”, IETF, draft-ietf6lowpan-routing-requirements-04.
 Jonathan W.Hui, David E.Culler, (2008) “Extending IP to Low-Power, Wireless Personal Area Networks, IEEE Internet Computing, Vol. 10, pp 37-45.
 Rong DING, Haiying DU, (2011) “Location-based IP addressing in IP-enable Wireless Sensor Network”, IEEE conference.
 S. Thomson, T. Narten, “IPv6 Stateless Address Auto configuration”, IETF draft.
 C.Perkins, E.Beding Royer, S.Das (2003) “Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector”, IETF, RFC 3561.
 N.Kushalnagar, G. Montenegro, C. Schumacher (2007) “IPv6 over Low-Power Wireless Personal Area Networks (6LoWPANs): Overview, Assumptions, Problem Statement and Goals”, IETF, RFC 4919.
 Lamia Chaari and Lotfi Kamoun (2011) “Performance analysis of IEEE 802.15.4/ Zigbee standard under real time constraints”, International Journal of Computer Networks and Communication (IJCNC), Vol.3, No.5, pp.no.235-251.
 K.Kim, G.Montenegro, S.Park, I.Chakeres, C.Perkins (2007)“Dynamic MANET On-demand for 6LoWPAN (DYMO-low) Routing”,IETF,draft-montenegro-6lowpan-dymo-low-routing-03.
 Zhongyu Cao, Gang Lu (2010)“S-AODV: Sink Routing Table over AODV Routing Protocol for 6LoWPAN”,Second international conference on Networks Security, pp.no 340-343.
 Gee KengEe, Chee Kyun Ng, Nor Kamariah Noordin, and Borhanuddin Mohd. Ali (2010)” Path Recovery Mechanism in 6LoWPAN Routing”, IEEE computer and communication engineering,pp 1-5.
 Hong Yu, Jingsha He (2011) “Improved Hierarchical Routing 0ver 6LoWPAN”, IEEE, pp 377-380.
 Hun-Jung Lim, Tai-Myoung Chung (2009), “The Bias Routing Tree Avoiding Technique for Hierarchical Routing Protocol over 6LoWPAN”, IEEE computer society, pp 232-235.
 Stefano Bochhino, MatteoPetracca, Paolo Pagano, Marco Ghibaudi and Francesco Lertora (2011),“SPEED Routing Protocol in 6LoWPAN NetworksSPEED Routing Protocol in 6LoWPAN Networks ”, IEEE ETFA conference 2011.
Citation Count – 02
Service Re-routing for Service Network Graph : Efficiency, Scalability and Implementation
David Lai and Zhongwei Zhang
University of Southern Queensland Toowoomba, Queensland, 4350
The key to success in Next Generation Network is service routing in which service requests may need to be redirected as in the case of the INVITE request in Session Initiation Protocol . Service Path (SPath) holds the authentication and server paths along side with service information. As the number of hops in a redirection increases, the length of SPath increases. The overhead for service routing protocols which uses SPath increases with the length of SPath. Hence it is desirable to optimize SPath to ensure efficiency and scalability of protocols involving service routing. In this paper, we propose a re-routing strategy to optimize service routing, and demonstrate how this strategy can be implemented using SPath to enhance the efficiency and scalability of Service Network Graph (SNG).
Service Routing, Service Path, Service Network Graph, Optimization, Authentication Delegation.
For More Details :http://airccse.org/journal/cnc/94.pdf
Volume Link :http://www.airccse.org/journal/j2current.html
 X.509 (03/00). International Telecommunication Union ITU-T Recommendations X series, 9 2003.
 A. Abdul-Rahman and S. Hailes. Using recommendations for managing trust in distributed systems. Proceedings of IEEE Malaysia International Conference on Communication ’97 (MICC’97), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 1997.
 A. Abdul-Rahman and S. Hailes. Supporting trust in virtual communities. Hawaii Int. Conference on System Sciences 33 , Maui, Hawaii, January 2000, January 2000.
 A. Abdul-Rahman and S. Halles. A distributed trust model. Proceedings of New Security Paradigms Workshops 1997, 1997.
 A. R. Au, M. Looi, and P. Ashley. Automated cross-organisational trust establishment on extranets.Proceedings of the workshop on information technology for virtual enterprises, 2001, (7):3–11, January 2001.
 T. Beth, M. Borcherding, and B. Klien. Valuation of trust in open networks. Proceedings of the Conference on Computer Security 1994, 1994.
 C. Cao, J. Yang, and G. Zhang. Semantic overlay based services routing between mpls domains. Proceedings of 7th International Workshop on Distributed Computing, IWDC 2005, Kharagpur, India, 2005.
 D. Denning. A new paradigm for trusted systems. Proceedings of 1992-1993 ACM SIGSAC New Security Paradigms Workshop, 1993.
 IETF and IESG. The kerberos network authentication service (v5). Porposed Standard, RFC1510, 9 1993.
 D. Lai and Z. Zhang. Integrated key exchange protocol capable of revealing spoofing and resisting dictionary attacks. Technical Track Proceedings, 2nd International Conference, Applied Cryptography and Network Security, Yellow Mountain, June 2004.
 D. Lai and Z. Zhang. An infrastructure for service authentication and authorization revocation in a dynamic aggregation of networks. WSEAS Transactions on Communications, 4(8):537–547, August 2005.
 D. Lai and Z. Zhang. Network service sharing infrastructure: Service authentication and authorization revocation. Proceedings of the 9thWSEAS International Conference on Communications, July 2005.
 D. Lai and Z. Zhang. Secure service sharing over networks for mobile users using service network graphs. Proceedings, Wireless Telecommunication Syposium 2006, April 2006.
 D. Lai and Z. Zhang. Self-authentication of encrypted channels in servive network graph. Proceedings, 2008 IFIP International Conference on Network and Parallel Computing, (NPC 2008), October 2008.
International Journal of Computer Networks & Communications (IJCNC), Vol.1, No.1, April 2009 59
 D. Lai, Z. Zhang, and C. Shen. Achieving secure service sharing over ip networks. Proceedings, ASEE MidAtlantic Section Spring 2006 Conference, April 2006.
 D. Lai, Z. Zhang, and H. Wang. Towards an authentication protocol for service outsourcing over ip networks. Proceedings of the 2005 International Conference on Security and Management, (7), June 2005.
 B. Lampson, M. Abadi, M. Burrows, and E.Wobber. Authentication in distributed systems: Theory and practice. ACM Transactions on Computer Systems, 10(4):265–310, 1992.
 M. Montaner, B. Lopez, and J. L. Rosa. Developing trust in recommender agents.Proceedings of the first international joint conference on Autonomous agents and multi-agent systems, 2002.
 M. Reiter and S. Stubblebine. Authentication metric analysis and design. ACM Transactions on Information and System Security, 2(2), January 1999.
 S. Robles, J. Borrell, J. Bigham, L. Tokarchuk, and L. Cuthbert. Design of a trust model for a secure multiagent marketplace. Proceedings of the fifth international conference on Autonomous agents, 2001.
 J. Rosenberg, H. Schulzrinne, G. Camarillo, A. Johnston, J. Peterson, R. Sparks, M. Handley, and E.Schooler. Sip: Session initiation protocol. RFC 3261, June 2002.
 D. Willis and B. Hoeneisen. Session initiation protocol (sip) extension header field for registering nonadjacent contacts. RFC 3608, October 2003. Authors David Lai received his Bachelor degree in Physics from
Citation Count – 02
Energy-Efficient Traffic-Aware Detour Trees for Geographical Routing
Lei Zhang, Deying Li and Alvin Lim
Frostburg State University, Frostburg, MD, U.S.A
Renmin University of China, Beijing, P.R. China
Auburn University, Auburn, U.S.A.
Tree routing is one of the detouring strategies employed in geographic routing to help find a detour for a packet to leave a local minimum. The effectiveness of tree routing depends on the quality of the pre-constructed routing trees. Existing tree construction methods build trees in a top-down and centralized fashion and do not consider the traffic pattern and residual energy of the network. Therefore is likely to create trees with poor routing performance. In this paper, we propose a novel routing tree, namely Energy-Efficient Traffic-Aware Detour Tree, which is constructed completely in a bottom-up fashion, with the consideration of both traffic load and residual energy. The simulation shows that our detour tree rarely encounters the problem of conflicting hulls, has much higher average path residual energy and throughput than other detour trees, leading to a better routing performance.
Detour tree, Geographic routing, Energy-efficient traffic-aware routing.
For More Details :http://airccse.org/journal/cnc/0110s011.pdf
Volume Link :http://www.airccse.org/journal/ijc2010.html
 Perkins, C.E. and P. Bhagwat. Highly dynamic Destination-Sequenced Distance-Vector routing (DSDV) for mobile computers. in Proceedings of the conference on Communications architectures, protocols and applications SIGCOMM ’94. 1994. London, United Kingdom.
 Johnson, D.B. Routing in Ad Hoc Networks of Mobile Hosts. in Proceedings of the Workshop on Mobile Computing Systems and Applications. 1994. Santa Cruz, CA.
 Johnson, D.B. and D.A. Maltz, Dynamic Source Routing in Ad Hoc Wireless Networks, in Mobile Computing, T. Imielinski and H. Korth, Editors. 1996, Kluwer Academic Publishers. p. 153-181.
 Perkins, C.E. and E.M. Royer. Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector Routing. in Proceedings of the 2nd IEEE Workshop on Mobile Computing Systems and Applications. 1999. New Orleans, LA.
 Vincent, D.P. and M.S. Corson. A Highly Adaptive Distributed Routing Algorithm for Mobile Wireless Networks. in Proceeding of IEEE Conference on Computer Communications, INFOCOM. 1997. Kobe, Japan.
 Clausen, T., et al. Optimized Link State Routing Protocol. in Proceeding of IEEE International Multi Topic Conference 2001: technology for the 21st century. 2001. Lahore University of Management Sciences, Pakistan.
 Pei, G.Y., M. Gerla, and T.W. Chen. Fisheye state routing: a routing scheme for ad hoc wireless networks. in Proceeding of IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC2000). 2000. New Orleans, LA.
 Haas, Z.J. and M.R. Pearlman, The performance of query control schemes for the zone routing protocol. IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, 2001. 9(4): p. 427 – 438. 9. Ramasubramanian, V., Z.J. Haas, and E.G. Sirer. SHARP: a hybrid adaptive routing protocol for mobile ad hoc networks. in Proceedings of the 4th ACM international symposium on Mobile ad hoc networking & computing. 2003. Annapolis, Maryland, U.S.A.
 Ko, Y.B. and N.H. Vaidya, Location-aided routing (LAR) in mobile ad hoc networks. Wireless Networks, 2000. 6(4): p. 307-321.
 Karp, B. and H.T. Kung. GPSR: Greedy perimeter stateless routing for wireless networks.in Proceedings of the 6th ACM/IEEE International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking (MobiCom 2000). 2000. Boston, MA.
 Kuhn, F., et al. Geometric ad-hoc routing: of theory and practice. in Proceedings of the 22nd ACM Annual Symposium on the Principles of Distributed Computing (PODC 2003). 2003. Boston, MA.
 Leong, B., B. Liskov, and R. Morris. Geographic Routing Without Planarization. in Proceedings of the 3rd Symposium on Networked Systems Design & Implementation (NSDI 2006). 2006. San Jose, CA.
 Kim, Y.J., et al. Geographical Routing Made Practical. in Proceedings of the 2nd Annual Symposium on Networked Systems Design and Implementation. 2005. Boston, MA.
 Karp, B., Geographic Routing for Wireless Networks, in Computer Science. 2000, Harvard University: Cambridge.
 Li, X., et al. Multi-dimensional range queries in sensor networks. in Proceedings of ACM SenSys 2003. 2003. Los Angeles, California, U.S.A.
 Ratnasamy, S., et al. GHT: A geographic hash table for data-centric storage in sensornets. in Proceedings of the First ACM International Workshop on Wireless Sensor Networks and Applications (WSNA). 2002. Atlanta, Georgia, U.S.A.
 Newsome, J. and D. Song. GEM: Graph EMbedding for routing and data-centric storage in sensor networks without geographic information. in Proceedings of ACM SenSys 2003. Los Angeles, California,U.S.A. International Journal of Computer Networks & Communications (IJCNC), Vol.2, No.1, January 2010 167
 Rao, A., et al. Geographic routing without location information. in Proceedings of the Ninth Annual International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking, (Mobicom). 2003. San Diego, California,U.S.A.
 Garbriel, K. and R. Sokal, A new statistical approach to geographic variation analysis. Systematic Zoology, 1969. 18: p. 259-278.
 Toussaint, G., The relative neighborhood graph of a finite planar set. Pattern Recognition,1980. 12(4): p. 261-268.
 Liu, S.P. and L. Cheng. Local Tree Based Geometric Routing. in Proceeding of IEEE International Conference on Communications,(ICC2007). 2007. Glasgow, Scotland.
 Kuhn, F., R. Wattenhofer, and A. Zollinger. Worst-Case Optimal and Average-case Efficient Geometric Ad-hoc Routing. in Proceedings of the Fourth ACM International Symposium on Mobile and Ad hoc Networking & Computing (MobiHoc’03). 2003. Annapolis, Maryland.
 Kim, Y.J., et al. On the Pitfalls of Geographic Face Routing. in Proceedings of the 2005 Joint Workshop on Foundations of Mobile Computing (DIALM-POMC’05). 2005. Cologne,Germany.
 Cormen, T.H.L., C.E. Rivest, R.L. and C. Stein, Introduction to Algorithms. second ed. 2001.
 IEEE, ed. Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) specifications: Higher-Speed Physical Layer Extension in the 2.4 GHz Band. 2003, The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc.: New York, NY. 1-89.
 Papadimitriou, C.H., The theory of database concurrency control. 1986: Computer Science Press. 239.